Geneva and Singapore, July 3,
2012 - For the second year running, Switzerland,
Sweden, and Singapore lead in overall innovation performance
according to the Global Innovation Index 2012 (GII): Stronger
Innovation Linkages for Global Growth, published by INSEAD, the
leading international business school, and the World Intellectual
Property Organization (WIPO), a specialized agency of the United
The report ranks 141 countries/economies on the basis of their
innovation capabilities and results. It benefits from the
experience of Knowledge Partners Alcatel-Lucent, Booz &
Company, and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), as well as
an Advisory Board of eleven international experts.
The study shows that the dynamics of innovation continue to be
affected by the emergence of new successful innovators, as seen by
the range of countries across continents in the top twenty GII
ranking, as well as the good performances of emerging countries
such as Latvia, Malaysia, China, Montenegro, Serbia, Republic of
Moldova, Jordan, Ukraine, India, Mongolia, Armenia, Georgia,
Namibia, Viet Nam, Swaziland, Paraguay, Ghana, Senegal; and
low-income countries Kenya and Zimbabwe.
Canada is the only country leaving the
top 10 this year, mirroring weakening positions on all main GII
innovation input and output pillars.
"The GII is a timely reminder that policies to promote
innovation are critical to the debate on spurring sustainable
economic growth," WIPO Director General Francis Gurry said.
"The downward pressure on investment in innovation exerted by
the current crisis must be resisted. Otherwise we risk durable
damage to countries' productive capacities. This is the time for
forward-looking policies to lay the foundations for future
Canada - previously number 8 on the top ten list, dropped this
year to 12th position. While the country ranked high on such
measures as its institutions (second place) and market
sophistication (seventh), it scored considerably lower on human
capital and research, where it ranked 25th.
Top 10 Leaders in the overall Global Innovation Index
The list of overall GII top 10 performers has changed little
from last year. Switzerland, Sweden, and Singapore are followed in
the top ten by Finland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands,
Denmark, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, and the United States of
At a glance: Global Innovation Index 2012 The report shows
that the U.S.A. continues to be an innovation leader but also cites
relative shortfalls in areas such as education, human resources and
innovation outputs as causing a drop in its innovation ranking.
The Top 10 Leaders in the Global Innovation Index are (in
order) Switzerland, Sweden, Singapore, Finland, United
Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Hong Kong (China), Ireland.United
States of America
Click here for larger version
Global Innovation Efficiency Index 2012
Complementing the overall GII ranking, the Global Innovation
Efficiency Index shows which countries are best in transforming
given innovation inputs into innovation outputs. Countries which
are strong in producing innovation outputs despite a weaker
innovation environment and innovation inputs are poised to rank
high in this "efficiency" index.
In the Global Innovation Efficiency Index, China and India lead
the top 10 league of countries. Four of the top 10 countries in the
Efficiency Index are lower-middle income countries.
Deep innovation divides between countries and regions
The GII identifies three groups of countries:
innovation leaders, learners andunderperformers - full graphic.
The GII 2012 shows that a new dynamic of innovation is emerging
regardless of deep and persistent innovation divides between
countries and regions.
The most important innovation gaps exist between countries at
different stages of development.
On average, high-income countries outpace countries with less
income per capita by a wide margin across the board in all
innovation performance metrics. Large innovation divides also exist
across geographic regions, especially when comparing average
performances across high-income countries with those of other
regions, such as Africa, large parts of Asia and Latin America.
The Report highlights a multi-speed Europe, with innovation
leaders in Northern and Western Europe, Eastern European and Baltic
countries catching-up, and a Southern Europe that performs less
Comparing the overall GII scores to countries GDP per capita,
the report identifies three groups of countries.
Among the "innovation leaders" are high-income countries such as
Switzerland, the Nordic countries, Singapore, UK, Netherlands, Hong
Kong (China), Ireland, USA, Luxembourg, Canada, New Zealand,
Germany, Malta, Israel, Estonia, Belgium, Republic of Korea,
France, Japan, Slovenia, Czech Republic, and Hungary, which have
succeeded in creating innovation ecosystems where investments in
human capital thrive in fertile and stable innovation
infrastructures favorable to knowledge, technology and creative
"Innovation underperformers" are countries with weaknesses in
their innovation systems. They include a mix of high-income as well
as middle-income countries as shown in the chart above.
The theme of this year's GII report, 'Stronger innovation
linkages for global growth', underlines the importance of
productive interactions among innovation actors-firms, the public
sector, academia, and society-in modern innovation
Download the full report here or additional highlights, economy profiles and